There is the fundamental and unresolved problem with silicon of its expansion during battery charging and
discharging, which leads to cracking and loss of contact between the silicon material particles.
TUBALL™ graphene nanotubes cover the surface of the silicon particles and create highly conductive and
durable connections between them. These connections are so dense, long, conductive and strong that,
even when the silicon particles in the anode expand and the material starts to crack, the particles stay well
connected to each other through the TUBALL™ graphene nanotubes. This prevents the anode from going
out of service – the hugely improved cycle life is enough to meet even the most strict EV manufacturer's
TUBALL™ networks increase silicon-based anode cycle life up to 4 times
Leading Li-ion manufacturers have proven that TUBALL™ nanotubes make it possible today to create anodes with 20% SiO inside and thus reach record-breaking battery energy densities – up to 300 Wh/kg and 800 Wh/l. Such battery cells can deliver up to +15% higher range than the best Li-ion battery cells on the market!
Thanks to their unique intrinsic properties, graphene nanotubes outperform competitors and offer substantial Li-ion battery performance improvements in terms of discharge power, energy density and adhesion, as well as safety. Such performance improvements for Li-ion battery cathodes cannot be demonstrated by any traditional conductive additives, such as carbon black or multi wall carbon nanotubes.
High areal capacity battery electrodes enabled by segregated nanotube networks
High thickness and specific capacity leads to areal capacities of up to 45 and 30 mAh cm−2 for anodes and cathodes, respectively. Combining optimized composite anodes and cathodes yields full cells with state-of-the-art areal capacities (29 mAh cm−2) and specific/volumetric energies (480 Wh kg−1 and 1,600 Wh l−1).
Rational design of a high-energy LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode for Li-ion batteries
Replacing Denka black with SWCNT allows to reduce the carbon content to 0.2 wt% to further increase the energy density, and 2 wt% of PVDF was shown to benefit the cycling stability due to the mitigated PVDF-induced side reactions from its direct contact with NCA particles.